Assessing Potential Scenarios for Achieving New and Renewable Energy Targets in Java-Bali Power System, Indonesia
Geographic circumstances, government policies, and power system characteristics face many countries struggling to achieve their new and renewable energy (NRE). In addition, one characteristic of renewable energy (RE) which cannot be moved is a severe problem for archipelagic countries like Indonesia in achieving their NRE targets. Therefore, this research creates a long-term open-source generation expansion planning (GEP) model that considers renewable energy integration between islands, government policies, and power system characteristics of Indonesia. The model proposes a high voltage direct current (HVDC) line to facilitate abundant energy transfer between islands. The research also included multiple scenario analyses based on the potential strategies that could realistically be applied. Based on the long-term GEP model results, possible alternative routes to achieving NRE targets are mapped and assessed by considering power system characteristics and national energy policies. Specifically, the Java-Bali system of Indonesia is employed as a case study to demonstrate the performance of the proposed long-term GEP model. The optimum planning to achieve the targets produces the generation cost of 7.05 cents USD/kWh and the CO2 emission reduction of 2,297 million tons of CO2.