The Interactions among Air Freight, GDP, Energy Usage and Ecological Footprint: An Empirical Investigation from Turkey


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Authors

  • Seda Bahadır School of Civil Aviation, Malatya Turgut Özal University, Malatya, Turkey

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.13753

Keywords:

Air Freight, GDP, Energy Usage, Ecological Footprint, Multivariate Regression, Generalized Method of Moments

Abstract

The major aim of this manuscript is to examine the long-run relationship between air freight, economic growth, energy usage and ecological footprint by employing Multivariate Regression (MR), FMOLS (Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares), DOLS (Dynamic Ordinary Least Square), CCR (Canonical Co-integrating Regression), and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) analysis for Turkey from 1970 to 2018 within the sense of EKC hypothesis. According to Multivariate Regression (MR) result of Turkey, air freight, economic growth, and energy usage influence the ecological footprint from 1970 to 2018. Besides, the long-term linkage of variables including air freight, economic growth, energy usage and ecological footprint is indicated through FMOLS, DOLS, CCR and GMM analysis which is verified the EKC hypothesis for Turkey. Thus, all-time series analysis of this paper confirms that air freight, economic growth, and energy usage cause environmental pollution between 1970 and 2018 for Turkey. When the empirical results are considered the Environmental Management System has not yet been established at airports open to international traffic. However, in order to meet the standards expected by international aviation authorities, it is necessary to develop practices in this regard at airports in Turkey. Today, when environmental pollution has reached serious dimensions, airport operators, local people and every unit of the aviation industry will go to produce solutions and take precautions together. With the Environmental Management System to be established within the airport, which is accepted as indispensable businesses in terms of social and economic aspects for the environment; it will be able to achieve sustainable development by increasing their performance in the new period. The use of renewable energy sources at airports will contribute to the process. Financial incentives should be provided to airline companies that are willing to invest in line with these targets, and tax exemptions should be introduced for such investments. Although it does not seem possible in the near future, it is important for the future sustainability of the sector to carry out studies on electric air transportation.

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Published

2022-11-28

How to Cite

Bahadır, S. (2022). The Interactions among Air Freight, GDP, Energy Usage and Ecological Footprint: An Empirical Investigation from Turkey. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 12(6), 332–339. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.13753

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Articles