Multi-Level Analysis of Sustainable Energy Transition in Kenya: Role of Exogenous Actors
Sustainable energy transition is desirable to reduce carbon emission and to increase access to electricity from renewable energies, which hold especially true for African countries. Examining past transition pathway helps further advance the transition. Multi-level perspective has been adopted to examine technological transition and innovation in and beyond energy sector. Empirical research focused merely on energy transitions in developed countries, such as Germany, Netherlands and UK. This paper contributes by providing the lessons from developing countries, with case of Kenya. The niche-regime-landscape dynamics in Kenya's electricity sector are depicted within three stages from 1954 to 2016, revealing the unneglectable role of exogenous actors in changing the landscape and accumulating the niche novelties. The paper holds the argument that, in comparison with developed countries, the developing world in energy transitions should pay attention to the influence of exogenous actors onto its landscape, regime and niche for a better sustainability transition.
Keywords: Energy transition, exogenous actors, multi-level perspective, Kenya
JEL Classifications: L9, Q4